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Hyperboles are often used in political controversy and propaganda, and so on.

Why is this happening? The fact is that before the core, ie to influence the listener’s beliefs through knowledge, the speaker must overcome two psychological circles of resistance, without which knowledge simply will not reach the listener, he will hear only words, no more.

The first circle is interest, social and personal. Moreover, it is not a question of external curiosity, but of touching on something essential for these particular listeners. This may not seem like a big enough detail, and yet, for example, in a female audience, any aspect of the conversation related to children and their future will often lead to success in overcoming the layer of opposition to perception.

Suppose that the first layer is overcome, the interest of the audience is aroused. But we must not forget that on most issues people have their own ideas, assessments, conclusions based on life experience, ie consciousness everyday. Even a complete lack of understanding of a particular subject of conversation indicates a level of consciousness, as it suggests that listeners do not consider it important enough and do not pay attention to it.

Since the ordinary consciousness is characterized by the active activity of the emotional-sensory apparatus, it acts as a kind of selection filter of the received information. The information can be completely true and useful and yet remain unacceptable. Conversely, information can be incorrect and dangerous, and is perceived actively, easily. At the heart of this "filter" is a mechanism of trust or distrust, the formation of which is determined not only and not so much by knowledge, but by a rather complex system of laws of psychological interaction of speaker and audience, interaction of a living person with a whole system of the same individuals with their worries, knowledge, feelings and motives.

The criterion for overcoming circles (layers) of opposition is the interested attention of the audience, the provision of which is the first psychological problem of contact between the speaker and the audience on the way to forming a belief (and the belief that the masses are specific, life compare and contrast essay cheap 123helpme aspect, such as guilt or innocence). then with real conviction, when it is based on consciously acquired certain knowledge or principles. This must be kept in mind when overcoming all circles of opposition, so that what you say first does not conflict with what you said later, which would weaken the formation of certain knowledge or principles.

Overcoming each circle is a certain stage before the listeners understand the subject of the speaker’s speech and therefore carries not only psychological but also intellectual load. Therefore, the psychological aspects should be considered in inseparable unity with the aspects of thought, content. For example, the speaker decided to arouse interest in the topic with humor. It is psychologically important that at the same time the listeners receive a certain intellectual stimulus, because humor is always based on contradictions, and in it the essence of things is enlightened and seen in a lively, bright form. Therefore, a humorous, at first glance, the beginning should be further developed into a serious, meaningful system of knowledge important to students.

Psychologically, the first stage of understanding, ie overcoming the first layer of opposition, is important in achieving the goal of the speaker, if the listener internally perceives the topic and subject of the speech as important and interesting, and will be willing to listen to them.

The second stage of understanding is related to overcoming the resistance of everyday consciousness. It should be emphasized that it is a matter of overcoming resistance, as the formation of scientific ideas can be reduced throughout the speech to neutralize ingrained stereotypes on any issue.

Overcoming resistance is expressed from an intellectual point of view in the audience’s awareness of the fact that much of what is in life does not fit into the usual framework of understanding and can not be explained on the basis of existing ideas. And psychologically it is manifested even purely externally: in the trust in the speaker, in the desire to write, in requests to repeat something, and even in disagreement, if it is not hostile, but the nature of doubt.

The speaker must remember, feel them and build a psychological line of behavior accordingly.

Only after the psychological preconditions of perception of scientific knowledge have been created, psychological barriers have been overcome, it is possible to start the implementation of the system of scientific knowledge in full. But we should not forget that overcoming resistance in the layers of social and psychological interest, as well as everyday interest, is not carried out once and for all.

This resistance can be revived in one form or another or make itself felt in the process of meaningful presentation of the material, inhibiting its perception. To prevent this from happening, throughout the speaker’s speech it is necessary to adhere to certain psychological and pedagogical (didactic) principles, to use certain methods of organizing interaction with the audience.

The skill of organizing interaction depends on many components: first of all, on the skill of the speech itself – its content (this is the scientific and theoretical depth, and practical orientation, and logic), emotionality. Of great importance is the technology of raising the material, ie the correct choice of forms and methods of speech depending on the characteristics of the audience.


Toman Rust. The art of speaking. – K., 1998. Dale Carnegie. Learn to speak in public and influence a wide range of people. – K., 2000. The culture of debate. – Kharkiv, 1988."History of world culture" LT Levchuk. – Kyiv: "Lybid" 1994 – Art. 168-192, only 310 st.S. I. Radzig "History of Ancient Greek literature" Moscow, st "High school" 1999; M. Gasparova, V. Borukhovich "Oratory of ancient Greece" Moscow, "Fiction" 1985;"Ancient literature" Moscow, st "Education" 1986. History of eloquence. – Kyiv, 2000. Ukrainian and foreign culture. Textbook. – K., 1999.


The concept, content, role, means of creating the imagery of language. Abstract

You can not talk to the audience only in the language of abstract concepts, generalizations, laws, conclusions, the language of numbers. The speaker must interest, captivate the audience with the ideas he reveals. And here the imagery of the presentation is necessary

M. Gorky noted that the language should be not only clear, simple, correct, clean, but also bright. To paint a bright, imaginative picture in front of the listeners is to leave an impressive imprint in their minds, to excite them.

The image is a wonderful form of oratory. It has always been used in speeches by speakers from the rostrum.

In the case of Vira Zasulich, who was accused of attempting to assassinate the St. Petersburg mayor General Trepov, caused by the latter’s illegal order to sharply cut down political prisoner Bogolyubov, her lawyer PA Aleksaidrov figuratively described the use of sharp in Russia: "Sharpness prevailed everywhere: at school, in the secular east, it was an indispensable accessory to the landlord’s stables, then in the barracks, in the police department. In the compilations of our criminal, civil and military laws, all pages were sharply laced. It was a kind of light melodic ringing in the general loud moaning of the naked, cue and spitsruten"…

Imagery is mainly achieved through trails and stylistic figures.

Trope (Greek tropos – inversion) – the use of a word or phrase in a figurative, figurative sense. At the heart of the trail – a comparison of two phenomena, objects that are close to each other in any way. Folk wisdom says: "Without the sweet you will not feel bitter, without the ugly you will not have an idea of ​​beauty"…

There are the following types of trails:

comparison, epithet, metaphor, allegory, irony, hyperbole, personification, etc.

Comparison. This is a comparison of one subject and another in order to more vividly and clearly describe one of them. For example, talking about the need to improve the entire education system and how important it is to teach young people to think creatively, to prepare them for life, we can give a figurative statement that uses comparisons: "The ancients said that a disciple is not a vessel to be filled, but a torch to be lit."…

Comparisons play a very important role in descriptions, they help to imagine the object of conversation.

Epithet – (from the Greek. "addition") figuratively defines a thing, person or action, emphasizing the most characteristic or impressive quality. "Should young women shine with their sinful hair against God’s sun?" (I. Nechuy-Levytsky).

Metaphor – (from the Greek. Transfer) replacement of the direct name of the object figurative. Metaphor is the same comparison, but in comparison the similarity is indicated directly, and in metaphor it is guessed. Youth can be to the spring of life. A metaphor is essentially an abbreviated comparison in which the object of comparison itself is omitted. For example: a cup of patience, you can’t get into someone else’s soul, drink a bitter cup, etc.

Allegory (allegory) – an image of an abstract concept or phenomenon through a specific image. For example: cunning is shown in another language in the form of a fox; peace – in the form of a dove. Everyone knows the allegory of love – the heart; allegorical depiction of the change of war to peace – "And they shall make their swords into plowshares, and their spears into sickles"… Tartuffe – an allegory of hypocrisy, Don Quixote – an allegory of chivalry, etc.

Personification – giving inanimate things or natural phenomena human features: fox-sister, wolf-brother, uncle-bear, and so on. The personification, very characteristic of folklore with its mythological consciousness, is also used by writers: "Roars and groans wide Dnepr …" (T. Shevchenko).

Hyperbole (from the Greek. "exaggeration") – deliberate artistic exaggeration of the power, meaning, size of the depicted phenomenon. Example: "Few birds will reach the middle of the Dnieper" (M. Gogol). Hyperboles are often used in political controversy and propaganda, and so on.

Summer (from the Greek. "simplicity") – a figurative expression, which consists in reducing the magnitude, meaning of the phenomenon being depicted. For example: From Nizhyn to Kiev at hand. Speakers often use the means of folk wisdom: "boy with finger" "hut on chicken legs"…